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The /auth/get endpoint allows you to retrieve the bank account and routing numbers associated with an Item ’s checking and savings accounts, along with high-level account data and balances.

The Auth product performs two crucial functions. It translates bank access credentials (username and password) into an account and routing number. No input of account or routing number is necessary. This eliminates the need for micro-deposits or any other secondary authentication.

Note: This request may take some time to complete if auth was not specified as an initial product when creating the Item . This is because Plaid must communicate directly with the institution to retrieve the data.

The /transactions/get endpoint allows developers to receive user-authorized transaction data for credit and depository-type Account s. Transaction data is standardized across financial institutions, and in many cases transactions are linked to a clean name, entity type, location, and category. Similarly, account data is standardized and returned with a clean name, number, balance, and other meta information where available.

To retrieve transaction data for an Item , use the /transactions/get endpoint.

Due to the potentially large number of transaction s associated with an Item , results are paginated. Manipulate the count and offset parameters in conjunction with the total_transactions response body field to fetch all available Transaction s.

After an Item is added, Plaid begins a process to collect, parse, and clean all of the Item 's most recent transactions over the next 30-240 seconds. If a webhook is provided, you’ll get a notification as soon as that process is complete. After that, we’ll update the Item ’s data at set intervals throughout the day to collect all of the most recent transactions. An Item ’s account and transaction data may be retrieved at any time from our /transactions/get endpoint.

Transactions are pulled as they are posted to the issuing institution. Dependent on the merchant acquirer, processor, gateway and issuer, the time from when a transaction occurs to when it's posted can be from a few minutes to a few days. The date listed in transaction will be as close to the original transaction date as possible.

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The Connect and Collaborate Grants Programincentivizes faculty, staff, students and their respective public/private sector community partners to develop proposals with the potential to catalyze engaged, collaborative teaching, research, and service activities benefiting the community with impactful, sustainable programs while advancing the scholarly goals of the university.

This program is designed to bring together multiple, available resources and leverage existing partnerships to develop programs/initiatives that achieve measurable, positive impacts in communities.

The maximum grant award for 2017-18 is $70,000.

The deadline to submit a letter of intent for the 2017-18 Connect and Collaborate Grants Program was Sept. 29, 2017.

2017-18 Call for Letters of Intent Letters of Intent Template

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Information Session

An information session recording for the 2017-18 Connect and Collaborate Grants Program from September 12, 2017 can be viewed at the link below.



Programs at the design stage are beginning to be defined with a focus on proof that the program concept has merit both in terms of value to the community and scholarship. In this stage, the needs of target population groups and program requirements are identified, program goals that are consistent with the missions of the university and program partners are specified, and a program that can meet these goals is crafted and assessed for value creation.

In this stage, the initial focus is on a successful launch, then running the program in a formal fashion, but with a continual focus on improvement. New opportunities and challenges will arise often requiring the rethinking of the program model, which in turn will necessitate a return to assessment activities such as feasibility and marketing studies. The outcome of implementation is an established program where products or services have come to fruition with their value reinforced through evidence of impact and demand.

Expansion grants support scale-up, or otherwise strengthening, of a proven program's infrastructure and capacity to produce positive impacts. The goal of expansion is to add new products or services for existing customers or expand existing offerings into new geographic regions or target populations. Because expansion 'breaks new ground' it requires planning, research, and validation of new features, which should be complementary to existing experiences and capabilities, while building on the tried and true foundation established during the implementation phase.

The results from Transparency International reveal large heterogeneity across sectors; so it should be kept in mind that cross-country differences in the visualization below reflect, to a great extent, such differences across sectors.

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) in the US was passed in 1977 with the aim of making the bribery of foreign officials illegal. The following visualization, from the Mintz Group, shows the global distribution of all penalties in US Government FCPA cases since 1977. Darker colors in the map denote larger total penalties for activities in the corresponding country. Total penalties are measured in US dollars, so this chart combines the number and magnitude of cases. In Argentina, for example, the dark color is mainly due to one very large case involving Siemens (450 Million USD penalty, in 2008). An interactive version of this map including details regarding specific penalties, is available from the Mintz Group at .

These official records show that US firms have paid bribes in 80 countries since 1977—including in many OECD countries.

Corruption is commonly defined as "the abuse of entrusted power for private gain". Here we provide evidence of how diplomats in New York City abused their diplomatic status to break traffic rules by parking illegally.

UN mission personnel and their families benefit from diplomatic immunity. In New York City, until November 2002, diplomatic immunity implied that UN mission personnel could park illegally and avoid paying the corresponding fines. The following visualization maps average unpaid annual New York City parking violations per diplomat by the diplomat's country of origin, over the period November 1997 - November 2002. The data comes from Fisman and Miguel (2007) 5 , who in turn obtained information compiled by the New York City Department of Finance.

As we cans see from the map, this ‘revealed-preference’ measure of corruption among diplomats correlates positively with the survey-based measures of corruption we have already discussed. Diplomats from countries where corruption perception is low (e.g. Denmark) seem to be generally less likely to break parking rules abroad, even in situations in which there are no legal consequences.

While the correlation is obviously not perfect (e.g. Colombia has a high corruption perception but zero unpaid parking violations in the data) Fisman and Miguel (2007) show that, statistically speaking, the positive correlation between corrupt behavior by diplomats 'abroad', and corruption perception 'at home', remains after controlling for factors such as national income in the diplomats’ home country, or the diplomats' salaries. This evidence suggests that cultural norms are one of the factors that affect corrupt behavior.

Corruption is not something that only affects low income countries—and in fact, many high income countries have become increasingly aware of this in recent years.

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The Y chromosome, right, is dwarfed by the much larger X chromosome.

The Y chromosome, right, is dwarfed by the much larger X chromosome.

The Y chromosome, right, is dwarfed by the much larger X chromosome.

By comparing human and chimpanzee Y chromosome sequences, Whitehead Institute geneticists show the Y is undergoing swift change.

Anne Trafton, MIT News Office January 14, 2010



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The Y chromosome is often considered somewhat of a genetic oddball. Short and stubby, it carries hardly any genes, most of which are related to traits associated with maleness. Most of the chromosome consists of highly repetitive sequences of DNA, known as massive palindrome sequences, whose function is unknown.

Evolutionary biologists have long believed that the mammalian Y chromosome is essentially stagnant, having lost most of its genes hundreds of millions of years ago. But new research from MIT's Whitehead Institute, published in this week's issue of , overturns that theory. The research team, led by Whitehead Institute director and MIT biology professor David Page, showed that the Y chromosome is actually evolving rapidly and continuously remaking itself.

For the first time, the researchers sequenced the Y chromosome of the chimpanzee, allowing for the first interspecies comparison of the chromosome. They found significant differences between the two species' Y chromosomes, suggesting that those chromosomes have evolved faster than other chromosomes during the six million years since humans and chimpanzees emerged from a common ancestor.

The findings offer the first evidence that a Y chromosome as evolutionarily old as the human Y is in fact still evolving, says Andrew Clark, a genetics professor at Cornell University who studies Y chromosome evolution in fruit flies.

"There's a dramatic amount of turnover, and it's not just degeneration — it's gain and loss of genes that do something on the Y chromosome," says Clark, adding that the new sequence comparison may also help researchers study male infertility, which is often driven by defects in the Y chromosome.

Hundreds of millions of years ago, the Y diverged from its sister X chromosome and became specialized for male-specific traits. Evolutionary biologists have theorized that it quickly lost most of its genes through a process known as degeneration, then lapsed into a fairly static state.

However, this theory was difficult to test because all of those repetitive DNA stretches make the Y chromosome very tricky to sequence, says Jennifer Hughes, a postdoctoral associate at the Whitehead Institute and lead author of the Nature paper. Most genome sequencing studies completely exclude the Y chromosome.

In 2003, Page's laboratory and collaborators at the Genome Center at Washington University (who were also involved in the new chimpanzee study) were the first team to sequence the human Y chromosome. They found that the Y carries 78 genes, more than expected, but still far fewer than the 1,000 or so located on the X chromosome.

"Having the human sequence tells us quite a bit, but to obtain information about the evolution of the Y, we needed to do a comparative analysis," says Hughes.

As its next target, the Whitehead team chose the chimpanzee, humans' closest living relative. Human and chimpanzees genomes differ very little: 98.8 percent of DNA base pairs are identical between the two species.

Page's team expected that the chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes would also be very similar. To their surprise, they found that chimp and human Y chromosomes differ considerably — far more than the rest of the chromosomes. During the six million years of separation, the chimp Y has lost one-third to one-half of the human Y chromosome genes. However, the chimp Y has twice as many massive palindrome sequences as the human Y.

Page compares the Y chromosome changes to a home undergoing continual renovation. "People are living in the house, but there's always some room that's being demolished and reconstructed," says Page, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "And this is not the norm for the genome as a whole."

The researchers suspect several factors are at play in the divergent evolution of human and chimp Y chromosomes, including differences in mating behaviors. Because a female chimpanzee may mate with many male chimpanzees around the same time, any genes on the Y chromosome that lead to enhanced sperm production offer a distinct competitive advantage.

If a Y chromosome with genes for enhanced sperm production also carries mutations that alter or eliminate a gene not related to sperm production, those less advantageous mutations also get passed on, resulting in a Y chromosome with far fewer genes than the human Y.

"The gene loss seen in chimps and the possibility that this has been driven by the influence of sperm competition in chimps but not humans is interesting, and we will be able to judge this more readily once we have functional information about the gene products, which is still sketchy in many cases," says Mark Jobling, professor of genetics at the University of Leicester, who studies the evolution of the Y chromosome.

Researchers in the Page lab and the Washington University Genome Center are now sequencing and examining the Y chromosomes of several other mammals, to investigate whether rapid evolution is occurring in species other than humans and chimpanzees.

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Opiyo Berya James

January 18, 2010

What if the huge difference in the genetic makeup of chimp and human Y-chromosomes was there from the start, and had nothing to do with evolution? What if, indeed, men and chimps were created differently right from the start? Has any one stopped to think about this?


January 19, 2010

Yes, but if we accept this as proof of creationism, then we have to deny all the other evidence of evolution such as the Peppered Moth. Evolution progress far faster in one species than the other after both diverged from a common ancestor. The questions to be answered are: Why and How?

George Mitchell

January 27, 2010

Having read the article, and being relatively ignorant of the subject area, I am led to ask if the female (X-X) is more genetically stable than the male (X-Y), and what significance this could have.

Frederick Lüthcke

February 2, 2010

Isn´t this rpoof for teh evolutionary theory, as the chimpanzee Y-chromosome evolves to what could be a human Y-chromosome, which already has evolved.

(I don´t know much about biology or the science behind it, therefore my statement may not make sense at all... )


February 8, 2010

I trying to do biology project on the this topic "are men evolving faster then woman". My topic has to be between 2000 and 2500 words. Would just like to know if you have found any in depth info on topic as most the articles i am reading are more broad info. Do you think it is possible writing so many words and have you heard of any books dealing with topic.

Thanks.... =)

dave tribbett

February 16, 2010

I understood from a recent interview with Craig Venter that the difference between chimps and humans is more like 6% and the difference between humans is actually more like 2-3%. This is twice what we thought before.

As our ocean of knowledge expands so does the shoreline of ignorance, funny how everything we KNOW turns out to be wrong when we can finally observe or measure it.


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